The purpose of this review is to update the key findings from the scientific literature that provide explanations
for many of the reported and analyzed adverse effects associated with the spike-based COVID-19 vaccination.
An overwhelming body of evidence supports the main mode of action of spike-based COVID-19 vaccines,
namely the downregulation of ACE2 by spikes. Direct spike effects, synergisms and RAAS-independent
responses complement and multiply the already deleterious effects on tolerability.
It has been repeatedly confirmed that the SARS-CoV spike protein alone is not only able to downregulate
ACE2, but also to induce cell fusion, activation of TLR4, of co-receptors and gastrointestinal responses. The
systemic and long-lasting detection of spikes after vaccination disproves the claimed regionally limited and
short-lasting spike production and efficacy.
The exceptionally broad spectrum, frequency and severity of the reported ADRs associated with spike-based
COVID-19 vaccination exceed the known level of conventional vaccinations.
According to ADR analyses, the spike-based vaccines possess an unacceptable class-specific, unique ADR/side
effect profile.
From a pharmacological point of view, spikes are highly active substances, but not harmless antigens. For this
reason, they are not appropriate for preventive immunization to avoid comparatively harmless infections.