The purpose of this review is to update the key findings from the scientific literature that provide explanations for many of the reported and analysed adverse effects associated with the spike-based Covid-19 vaccination.

Principle results:

An overwhelming body of evidence supports the main mode of action of spike-based Covid-19 vaccines, namely the downregulation of ACE2 by spikes.  Direct spike effects, synergisms and RAAS-independent responses complement and multiply the already deleterious effects on tolerability.

It has been repeatedly confirmed that the SARS-CoV spike protein alone is not only able to downregulate ACE2, but also to induce cell fusion, activation of TLR4, of co-receptors and gastrointestinal responses. The systemic and long-lasting detection of spikes after vaccination disproves the claimed regionally limited and short-lasting spike production and efficacy.

The production volume of spikes, their dependencies and the non-neutralised spike proportion have so far remained unknown for unknown reasons.


The exceptionally broad spectrum, frequency and severity of the reported side effects associated with spike-based Covid-19 vaccination exceed the known level of conventional vaccinations.

According to my side effect analyses, the spike-based vaccines possess an unacceptable class-specific, unique side effect profile.

From a pharmacological point of view, spikes are highly active substances, but not harmless  antigens. For this reason, they are not appropriate for preventive immunisation to avoid comparatively harmless infections.